Wednesday, May 20, 2020

History of Roads in America and First Federal Highway

Transportation innovations boomed in the 19th century, including  steamships, canals, and  railroads. But it was the popularity of the bicycle that would spark a revolution in transportation in the 20th century and lead to the need for paved roads and the interstate highway system. The Office of Road Inquiry (ORI) within the Department of Agriculture was established in 1893, headed by Civil War hero General Roy Stone. It had a budget of $10,000 to promote new rural road development, which at that time were mostly dirt roads. Bicycle Mechanics Lead the Transportation Revolution In 1893 in Springfield, Massachusetts,  bicycle mechanics Charles and Frank Duryea built the first gasoline-powered motor wagon to be operated in the United States.They formed the first company to manufacture and sell gasoline-powered vehicles, although they sold very few. Meanwhile, two other bicycle mechanics, brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright, launched the aviation revolution with their first flight in December, 1903. The Model T Ford Pressures Road Development Henry Ford  debuted the low-priced, mass-produced Model T Ford in 1908. Now that an automobile was within reach for many more Americans, it created more desire for better roads. Rural voters lobbied for paved roads with the slogan, Get the farmers out of the mud! Federal-Aid Road Act of 1916 created the Federal-Aid Highway Program. This funded state highway agencies so they could make road improvements. However, World War I intervened and was a higher priority, sending road improvements to the back burner. Building Two-Lane Interstate Highways The Federal Highway Act of 1921 transformed the ORI into the Bureau of Public Roads. It now provided funding for a system of paved two-lane interstate highways to be built by state  highway agencies. These road projects got an infusion of labor during the 1930s with Depression-era job-creation programs. Military Needs Spur Development of the Interstate Highway System Entry into World War II swung the focus to building roads where the military needed them. This may have contributed to neglect that left many other roads inadequate for the traffic and in disrepair after the war. In 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had signed legislation authorizing a network of rural and urban express highways called the National System of Interstate Highways. That sounded ambitious, but it was unfunded. It was only after President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 that the Interstate program got under way. U.S. Department of Transportation Established The Interstate Highway System employed highway engineers for decades was a massive public works project and achievement. However, it was not without new concerns about how these highways affected the environment, city development, and the ability to provide public mass transit. These concerns were part of the mission created by the establishment of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) in 1966. BPR was renamed the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) under this new department in April  1967. The Interstate System became a reality through the next two decades, opening 99 percent of the designated 42,800 miles of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Source: Information provided by the United States Department of Transportation—Federal Highway Administration.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

New Deal Research Paper - 2622 Words

Vibhav Kollu Honors English III December 21, 2010 The New Deal’s Lasting Effect on Society â€Å"I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people,† President Franklin Delano Roosevelt said after winning his party’s nomination in 1932 (A New Deal for Americans). The 1930s was a time of great economic depression; in response the New Deal was FDR’s plan for America’s recovery. By 1933, when FDR took office, one in four Americans was unemployed. Furthermore, there was widespread hunger, malnutrition, overcrowding, and poor health. The New Deal was made to combat these tragic conditions and it did so through the means of welfare and government intervention. Indeed, the New Deal was a radical change to the way America had†¦show more content†¦This progressive act officially set up a national minimum wage, set up a forty hour work week, guaranteed time-and-a-half for overtime, and prohibited oppressive child labor (Friedrich). These acts dramatically improved labor conditions. A clear improvement in labor could be seen from before to after the New Deal labor reform. Americans, during the 1930s, clearly needed help. Too many were unemployed, struggling, starving, and/or homeless. One of the biggest legacies of the New Deal is that it combated unemployment with jobs in infrastructure. Many agencies and programs were set up to help increase America’s infrastructure and provide many needy people with jobs. One of those organizations was the Works Progress Administration. Incredibly, the WPA employed an average of 2.1 million people annually for a total of almost 8 million people. It had become largest New Deal program and required almost 11 billion dollars to fund it (Friedrich). The WPA was made with one goal in mind: to get people back to work so they can get money in their pockets to survive. The WPA built highways, airfields, public buildings, and did rural rehabilitation such as planting trees. In total, it had built around 110,000 public buildi ngs, 600 airports, 500,000 miles of roads, and 100,000 bridges (â€Å"New Deal†). Like the WPA, the Civilian Conservation Corps, had been created to provide jobs, but it was mainly for younger Americans. This program had employed and put 3Show MoreRelatedThe Nuclear Of The Iran Nuclear Deal929 Words   |  4 Pageswe noticed that though they are presenting the same information of the Iran nuclear deal, but they seem to tell it in separate ways. The articles come from two American papers (one Liberal, Washington Post, and one Conservative, Washington Times), a British newspaper (The Guardian), and an Iranian paper (the Tehran Times). 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Contract Law Payment of Consideration

Question: Discuss about the Report for Contract Law of Payment of Consideration. Answer: Issue: Based on the facts, the issue that takes place here is, whether an enforceable agreement exists with the giving of Lotus Super 7 or not? Relevant Rule: For existence of valid contract between the parties, it is important that the element of consideration is present (Durrant, 2013). A contract that does not fulfill the requirement of consideration, the contract is deemed to void. Consideration means payment of the price by the promisee to the promisor in return of service or fulfillment of the promise made between them. Gratuitous promises are not enforceable in the court of law (Garg, 2014). Thus, promise that is made without the involvement of consideration is not enforceable and it is simply considered a Nudum pactum (McKendrick, 2014). Roscorla v.Thomas is a famous case law in relation to payment of consideration. This case took place in the year 1842 wherein Thomas bought a horse on the promise that it shall be a well behaved and a mannered horse (Hillman, 2012). However, later it was noted by Thomas that the horse was ferocious by nature. The contract that existed between Roscorla and Thomas was not an enforceable contract as there was lack of consideration between the parties to the contract (Puil Weele, 2014). Application: In the given case study, the contract that existed between Jane and Jack is not enforceable as there is lack of consideration and can only be considered as a gratuitous promise between them. Conclusion: Hence, due to lack of consideration the contract can be declared as unenforceable. b: Issue: Based on the facts, the issue that takes place here is whether the contract that existed between Jane and Jack is enforceable or not? Relevant Rule: For a contract to be legally valid, it is important that the valid requisites be fulfilled such as offer, acceptance, competency, consideration and absence of undue influence or coercion. Additionally, intention of creating a legal relationship should also be present (Landa, 2014). If the mentioned requisites are fulfilled appropriately, a contract can be deemed as valid and enforceable in the court of law. Application: In the given case study, the contract that existed between Jane and Jack is enforceable and legally binding on both the parties to the contract. In this case, Jane is the offeror and Jack is the offeree. Jack accepts the offer that is made to him by Jane. Hence, the legal formality of offer and acceptance is completed at this stage of the contract. Additionally, the contract that existed between Jane and Jack involves presence of 25000 dollars as consideration, which Jack has to pay to Jane. This means that the legal formality of presence of consideration to make a contract valid is also completed between them. Conclusion: Thus, all the necessary requites of a valid contract existed between Jack and Jane making the contract enforceable. C: Issue: Based on the facts, the issue that takes place here is, whether the consideration offered is sufficient or not? Relevant Rule: The law of contract imposes no restriction on the parties to the contract in association to consideration of contract, as long as the consideration is sufficient. The promisor does the calculation of the feasible amount of consideration, as he is the one who will receive the amount of consideration in exchange of some service or product (Ayres Schwartz, 2014). The offeree does not have the authority to quantify the amount of consideration. However, he may be allowed to bargain with the price as long the consideration is sufficient (Niu, 2015). In the year 1959, Lord Somervell decided a famous in relation to sufficiency of consideration. In the case of Chappel v. Nestle, He opined that a peppercorn could be considered as a valid consideration as it is valuable and if the promisor has measured the same (Andrews, 2016). As already stated, if the consideration is a stipulation of the promisor or the offeror that it shall be considered as valid unless the stipulation is not against law. However, it is important that the consideration is in existence and holds some value in the eyes of law. A good consideration should not be illusionary in nature (Chen-Wishart, 2012). Application: In the given case study, it can be held that the consideration offered by Jane was valid and valuable in the eyes of law even if less than the market value of the car. Conclusion: Since Jane, being the offeror herself calculated the amount of the car the consideration can be regarded as valuable and sufficient. Part B: Facts: A shipbuilder formed an agreement with the builder to build a tanker for North Ocean Tankers. The consideration of the contract was decided in US dollars and did not have any conditions of currency changes. While the project was in its halfway, the price of currency of the United States devalued by 10 percent. The shipbuilder demanded for extra 3 million dollars or it would stop work. The buyer agreed to pay the excess the amount until nine months of delivery. Issue: Based on the facts, the issue that takes place here is, whether the buyer would be successful in the claim for the amount that has been obtained in excess by North Ocean Tankers or not? Relevant Rule: According to the common law, consideration is regarded as a special element that should be considered for formation of contract. In the case of Universe Tankships Inc. of Monrovia v International Transport Workers Federation, it was held that plaintiffs could recover the amount that is paid by them as that time the defendant was giving unreasonable threat that they would not release the ship if the amount were not paid to them reasonably. The plaintiffs paid the price to the defendants at that moment, however later on they filed a suit against the defendants for recovery of the amount that was paid (Reid, 2015). In the landmark case of Williams v Roffey Bros Nicholls (Contractors) Ltd, a contract existed between the principal contractor and the sub contractor for doing work related to carpentry. The initial consideration of the contract was 20,000 pounds, however, on a later date it was seen that the price was underestimated. The principal contractor got worried as to whether the work that he allotted to the sub contractor would be completed within the stipulated time or not. The principal contractor was afraid of the penalty that he might have to pay due to delay in the work of the sub contractor. Consequently, the principal contractor paid about 10,300 pounds to the sub contractor. However, later the amount was not paid to the principal contractor by the sub contractor. The principal contractor filed a suit against the sub contractor for recovery of the amount that was paid to him in excess of the original contract amount. The Court held that the sub contractor liable for payment of the e xtra amount as the contract that was entered between them was in lieu of the payment that he had stipulated (Houh, 2014). Likewise, in the case of the Universe Senitel, a ship that would operate in Liberia became black listed by the trade association. Resultantly, no tug boats were accessible so the ship could not said and thus it followed devastating results. The trade union forced for payment of their wellbeing fund as a stipulation to eliminate the name from the blacklist. The proprietor of the ship paid the money to the Union but then the plaintiff won the case for recovery of the money as the case involved influence under the doctrine of economic duress (Durrant, 2013). Application of law: In the given case study, since there was a likelihood that the North Ocean Tankers might suffer a loss if the shipbuilder refused to complete the building of the tanker hence the doctrine of consideration can be invoked in this case. It would be regarded that there are two contracts in existence, one that was an initial contract having original terms and conditions between the shipbuilder and the North Ocean Tankers and the second contract that was to pay the lack of funds for completion of the allotted work. Thus, the doctrine of consideration shall be applicable. In the case of Universe Tankship, there was presence of economic duress. Likewise, in the given case study as well there is presence of economic duress. Economic duress means using threat to cause damage to a persons financial interest. The doctrine of economic duress first evolved in the case of the Siboen. It was held by the Privy Council in this case that the use of economic duress shall make a contract void and the doc trine of consideration in the given case shall not become active. Conclusion: Similarly, in the given case study, as well, the use of economic duress was involved and thus the second contract was not valid allowing the shipbuilder to recover the amount that he paid in excess (Garg, 2014). References: Andrews, N. (2016). Sources and General Principles of English Contract Law. InArbitration and Contract Law(pp. 165-175). Springer International Publishing. Ayres, I., Schwartz, A. (2014). No-Reading Problem in Consumer Contract Law, The.Stan. L. Rev.,66, 545. Chen-Wishart, M. (2012).Contract law. Oxford University Press. Durrant, C. W. (2013). To benefit or not to benefit: mutually induced consideration as a test for the legality of unpaid internships.University of Pennsylvania Law Review,162(169). Garg, V. K. (2014). Doctrine of privity of contract and privity of consideration in India and British contaxt. Hillman, R. A. (2012).The richness of contract law: An analysis and critique of contemporary theories of contract law(Vol. 28). Springer Science Business Media. Houh, E. (2014). Sketches of a Redemptive Theory of Contract Law.Hastings LJ,66, 951. Landa, J. T. (2014). A theory of the ethnically homogeneous middleman group: an institutional alternative to contract law (with an Afterword).Handbook of East Asian Entrepreneurship, 82. McKendrick, E. (2014).Contract law: text, cases, and materials. Oxford University Press (UK). Niu, Z. (2015). The law of damages in Chinese contract law: A comparative study of damages calculation in Chinese law, English law and the CISG, with empirical results from Chinese practice. Puil, J. V. D., Weele, A. V. (2014). Contract Law and Tort Law. InInternational Contracting: Contract Management in Complex Construction Projects(pp. 285-292). Reid, D. (2015). Wim Decock, THEOLOGIANS AND CONTRACT LAW: THE MORAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE IUS COMMUNE (CA. 1500-1650) Leiden: Brill (www. brill. com/lhl), 2013. xvi+ 724 pp. ISBN 9789004232846. 179.00.Edinburgh Law Review,19(1), 155-157.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Plc nike shoes free essay sample

Nikes idea of producing their shoes was to let their costumers design and personalize their own pair of shoes. There are three main parts of athletic shoes including Nike brand shoes. The midsole, the outsole and the top part of the shoe known as the upper. The materials for the upper part of the shoe vary on the design of the shoe. The midsole is generally made out of a combination of materials. Some of these materials include polyurethane, Phylon, Phylite (which is a combination of Phylon and rubber) and EVA, a flexible, foam-like material. The shoelaces are made of cotton. The rubber-like products are put into molds to fit the form of the shoe. The softer products are sewn together to form the final product Nike shoes usually last about one year or so. Depending on the person, the shoes could have a greater lifespan or a shorter lifespan. We will write a custom essay sample on Plc nike shoes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Materials acquisition Nike shoe laces are made from cotton, a â€Å"raw material† or plant directly from the earth. The cotton provides a soft material for the laces. The ends of the laces are bonded by plastic, which is produced by oil or petroleum. Their logo on their shoes is also made of plastic (petroleum). Nike shoes mainly have rubber as their sole. The rubber is mainly made from special types of trees including rubber trees. The sap from the rubber trees is rubber, waiting to be made into a solid form. Once made into the rubber, it is applied to the shoe. A large number of Nike shoes use Velcro. The Velcro is made of nylon, cotton and polyester. Some of these materials are earth-based materials. Materials processing The cotton being used to produce the shoelaces is woven. The little strands of cotton are woven together creating the shoelace itself. The petroleum is melted into plastic. The melting produces CO2 emissions into the air, which gets trapped in the earth’s atmosphere. After it is melted, it is put into molds of the Nike logo and is sent to dry. After it is dried, it is applied to the shoes. The production of their shoes can be altered depending on the type of shoe. Manufacturing Once the Nike products are developed. Then, they are then attached to make the shoe. Nike shoes are produced in many countries: China USA Indonesia India Taiwan Thailand Pakistan Vietnam Philippines Malaysia Packaging Nike shoes are packaged in cardboard boxes called shoeboxes. Depending on a persons shoe size; there can be more packaging then usual or less packaging than usual. The cardboard used to make the box is compressed paper. It is 100% recycled cardboard, reused from other shoes. The cardboard can be recycled. Distribution The shoes are distributed to Nike stores all around the world by semis, planes, and boats. Use Nike shoes are mainly used for running. But, they have a wide variety of shoe categories: Cleats Basketball Shoes Regular Running Shoes Regular Shoes (mainly for style) Reuse/recycle Recycling or re-manufacturing products into something new. (Reduces the amount of raw materials that have to be used in the manufacturing process and usually saves energy). Recycling can save old things and reuse them and turn them into a brand new item. Some tennis shoes have been recycled and turned into basketball courts. Nike encourages people to recycle the shoebox they are given, which is made out of cardboard. Recycling includes: Plastic, plastic bottles, cans, glass, etc. Disposal When Nike are disposed they usually end up in landfills. Sometimes the shoes are donated to less fortunate people or turned into hand-me-downs.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Free Essays on Gonoreha

Gonorrhea Gonorrhea, also called â€Å"the clap,† is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States, with 1.5 million cases occurring per year. Ninety percent of infections occur in people under 30, with 15-19 year olds reporting the highest infection rates. Gonorrhea is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which infects the mucus membrane of the urethra and genital tract. It can be spread through sexual contact and condoms provide protection against the disease but its not 100 percent effective. An infected woman who is pregnant may give the infection to her infant as the baby passes through the birth canal during delivery. Approximately eighty percent of women and ten percent of men with gonorrhea show no symptoms. If symptoms to occur the happen 2-8 days after transmission. Symptoms experienced by men include a painful urination and a fluid discharge. Women may experience a discharge, painful urination, bleeding, or lower abdominal pain. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, or some type of penicillin used to be recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea. Regardless of what drug is prescribed, it is important that the patient take the full course of medication and that he or she return to the doctor's office or clinic for follow-up. All sex partners of a person with gonorrhea should be tested and treated appropriately even if they do not have symptoms of infection. If gonorrhea is not treated, the bacteria can spread to the bloodstream and infect the joints, heart valves, or the brain. The most common consequence of gonorrhea, however, is PID, a serious infection of the female reproductive organs, that occurs in an estimated 1 million American women each year. PID can scar or damage cells lining the fallopian tubes, resulting in infertility in as many as 10 percent of women affected. Because gonorrhea is highly contagious and yet may cause no symptoms, all men and women who have sexual... Free Essays on Gonoreha Free Essays on Gonoreha Gonorrhea Gonorrhea, also called â€Å"the clap,† is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States, with 1.5 million cases occurring per year. Ninety percent of infections occur in people under 30, with 15-19 year olds reporting the highest infection rates. Gonorrhea is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which infects the mucus membrane of the urethra and genital tract. It can be spread through sexual contact and condoms provide protection against the disease but its not 100 percent effective. An infected woman who is pregnant may give the infection to her infant as the baby passes through the birth canal during delivery. Approximately eighty percent of women and ten percent of men with gonorrhea show no symptoms. If symptoms to occur the happen 2-8 days after transmission. Symptoms experienced by men include a painful urination and a fluid discharge. Women may experience a discharge, painful urination, bleeding, or lower abdominal pain. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, or some type of penicillin used to be recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea. Regardless of what drug is prescribed, it is important that the patient take the full course of medication and that he or she return to the doctor's office or clinic for follow-up. All sex partners of a person with gonorrhea should be tested and treated appropriately even if they do not have symptoms of infection. If gonorrhea is not treated, the bacteria can spread to the bloodstream and infect the joints, heart valves, or the brain. The most common consequence of gonorrhea, however, is PID, a serious infection of the female reproductive organs, that occurs in an estimated 1 million American women each year. PID can scar or damage cells lining the fallopian tubes, resulting in infertility in as many as 10 percent of women affected. Because gonorrhea is highly contagious and yet may cause no symptoms, all men and women who have sexual...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The Grassland Biome Habitat

The Grassland Biome Habitat The grassland biome includes terrestrial habitats that are dominated by grasses and have relatively few large trees or shrubs. There are three main types of grasslands- temperate grasslands, tropical grasslands (also known as savannas), and steppe grasslands. Sufficient Rainfall Most grasslands experience a dry season and a rainy season. During the dry season, grasslands can be susceptible to fires which often start as a result of lightning strikes. The annual rainfall in a grassland habitat is greater than the annual rainfall that occurs in desert habitats. Grasslands receive sufficient rainfall to support the growth of grasses and other plants, but not enough to support the growth of significant numbers of trees. The soils of grasslands also limit the vegetation structure that grows in them. In general, grassland soils are too shallow and dry to support tree growth. Variety of Wildlife Grasslands support a variety of wildlife including reptiles, mammals, amphibians, birds and many types of invertebrates. The dry grasslands of Africa are among the most ecologically diverse of all grasslands and support populations of animals such as giraffes, zebras, lions, hyenas, rhinoceroses, and elephants. The grasslands of Australia provide habitat for kangaroos, mice, snakes, and a variety of birds. The grasslands of North America and Europe support wolves, wild turkeys, coyotes, Canada geese, cranes, bison, bobcats, and eagles. Some common plant species that occur in North American grasslands include buffalo grass, asters, coneflowers, clover, goldenrods, and wild indigos. Key Characteristics The following are the key characteristics of the grassland biome: Vegetation structure that is dominated by grassesSemi-arid climateRainfall and soils not sufficient to support significant tree growthMost common at mid-latitudes and near the interiors of continentsGrasslands are often exploited for agricultural use Classification The grassland biome is classified within the following habitat hierarchy: Biomes of the World Grassland Biome The grassland biome is divided into the following habitats: Temperate grasslands - Temperate grasslands are habitats that are dominated by grasses and have lack trees and large shrubs. Temperate grasslands include tall-grass prairies which are wet and humid and short-grass prairies which are dry and experience hot summers and cold winters. The soil of temperate grasslands has an upper layer that is nutrient-rich. Seasonal droughts are often accompanied by fires that prevent trees and shrubs from growing.Tropical grasslands - Tropical grasslands are grasslands that are located near the equator. They have warmer, wetter climates than temperate grasslands and experience more pronounced seasonal droughts. Tropical grasslands are dominated by grasses but also have some scattered trees. The soil of tropical grasslands are very porous and drain rapidly. Tropical grasslands occur in Africa, India, Australia, Nepal, and South America.Steppe grasslands - Steppe grasslands are dry grasslands that border on semi-arid deserts. The grasses found in steppe grasslands is much shorter than that of temperate and tropical grasslands. Steppe grasslands lack trees except along the banks of rivers and streams. Animals of the Grassland Biome Some of the animals that inhabit the grassland biome include: African elephant (Loxodonta africana) - African elephants have a large head, large ears, and a long muscular trunk. The two front incisors of African elephants grow into large tusks that curve forward.Lions (Panthera leo) - Lions are the largest of all African cats. Lions inhabit the savannas of Africa and the Gir Forest in northwest India.Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) - Spotted hyenas inhabit the grasslands, savannas, and semi-deserts of sub-Saharan Africa. Their population densities are highest in the Serengeti, a vast plains ecosystem that stretches from northern Tanzania to southwestern Kenya.American bison (Bison bison) - Millions of bison used to roam North Americas grasslands, boreal regions, and scrublands but the relentless slaughter of bison for meat, hides, and sport drove the species to the brink of extinction.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE PLAN Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE PLAN - Assignment Example In evaluating the implementation of a new project or delivery method in an organization, what would be the critical data sources you would use to measure the financial outcomes? In evaluating the implementation of a new project or delivery method in an organization, the best critical data sources one would use to measure the financial outcomes are the balance sheet and income statement, especially in the health care organization. Steven Berger (2007) theorizes the financial analyst can compare the variance between the financial statements indicated as prior to the implementation of the new project or delivery in an organization and the financial statemetns indicated as after the implementation of the new project or delivery in an organization. For example, the financial analyst will determine if the health care organisaton’s sales had increased after the implementation of a new project or delivery method by comparing such sales with the sales generated before the implementatio n of the new project or delivery method. An increase in the sales will indicate the change was beneficial to the health care organization.